Dating in the time period 1818


An eclectic architect, he amalgamated all the styles of his time in uniquely free and expressive shapes. Haydn wrote a number of slow movements as rondos (notably, in his ) and employed rondos 12 times in his last 17 symphonies.

Rondo form (in which a recurrent theme alternates with other material, as A B A C A) had been found especially in Italian opera and French instrumental music before about 1770; in the 1770s and ’80s it became second only to sonata form in symphonic importance. Mozart avoided the rondo in his last symphonies, perhaps because of the light nature of the form.

The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification.

Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra's forces defeated Zutra's army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews.Few composers show such remarkable growth as Haydn; from his insignificant youthful pieces, entirely dominated by the style of his pre-Classical elders, to the towering achievement of his last works, his symphonies display an evolution in form and content that had tremendous effect on his followers.Viennese in style, some of his early symphonies display originality in the use of nonstandard phrase lengths and in their monothematic tendencies.Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem.Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt, ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea.The sonata recapitulations are subtly altered, but, unlike Stamitz’s, they are generally complete.

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